Thursday, November 1, 2018

Podcast Episode 24: Abby & Lauren's Top 5 Costuming Books

Hey Everyone!

We're back with a new quick little episode of the podcast, where Lauren and I chat about our top 5 costuming books. While it's difficult to pick favorites, we did our best (even though Lauren cheated a little bit...hahahahaha).

A small sample of Abby's book collection



Our Favorite Books (in no particular order):

1. Kyoto's Costume Book(s)
2. Norah Waugh's Cut of Women's Clothes
3. Nancy Bradfield's Costume in Detail
4. Norah Waugh's Corsets and Crinolines
5. Janet Arnold's Patterns of Fashion
6. Florence Montgomery's Textiles in America
7. Jean Hunnisett's Period Costume for Stage and Screen

If you want to see everything that is in Lauren's library click Here.

We hope that you enjoy this episode, as we recorded it with new microphones and I battleaxed my way (more like stumbled) through Adobe Audition...so hopefully the issues with sound have improved. I'm not a professional and I'm very much a beginner with this software, but I do hope it has helped!

Until next time!
Abby
 
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Monday, October 22, 2018

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1790 Redingote Inspiration and Percolation

Redingote, c. 1790, LACMA M2009.120
Friends, I haven't wanted to sew for awhile. Burn-out is a real thing, especially failing miserably on the last two 18th century gowns I tried to make (the irony). So I'm giving myself a break (in France) and letting the inspiration rekindle whenever it likes.

That being said, while I don't want to touch a needle and thread right this moment, I am thinking of new garments I'd like to make for next year. We have two trips/events planned for next year that will need some 18th century clothes, and with a grand total of two ensembles that still fit me (and you're all sick of that yellow dress, I know), it's time for something new.

I have a lot of fabric I've been marinating. One is an olive and buff striped taffeta that feels like a striped redingote. I made a redingote for my wedding gown 5 years ago and have always loved the style, so perhaps it's time for another.

Bless you, LACMA, for the many high resolution photos of this dress! Redingote, c. 1790, LACMA, M.2009.120
My silk isn't as interesting and varied as that used for the LACMA redingote, but it's reminiscent.

Wouldn't we love to stumble upon a silk like this someday? For now I have much simpler striped taffeta that will have to suffice. Redingote, c. 1790, LACMA, M.2009.120
LACMA published a gridded pattern for this garment a few years ago here. There is a PDF download with notes as well as the grid, which will be hugely helpful in draping and patterning.

I'll be sure to post progress photos as I go along later this year. <3
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Friday, October 19, 2018

Podcast Episode 23: Cheyney McKnight on African Hair and Headwraps

Hi Everyone!

Abby here with another episode of Fashion History with American Duchess. This episode has been long overdue, and we're so incredibly excited to share it with you! Last spring, we met up with the lovely Cheyney McKnight of Not Your Mommas History to discuss African and African American Hair, Headwraps, etc. in the 18th and 19th centuries.

As always, Cheyney is a wealth of knowledge, and we were completely blown away by her story telling and information. Just a fair warning, I get really emotional at one particular part in this episode.


During the episode, you'll notice that Cheyney discusses quite a few images, and you'll find them below:


An Overseer doing his duty near Fredricksburg, Virginia by Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Ca. 1798, Maryland Historical Society 


The Old Plantation, John Rose, 1785, CWF, 1935.301.3

Free Women of Color with their Children and Servants in a Landscape, oil on canvas painting by Agostino Brunias, ca. 1764-1796,  Brooklyn Museum 
Free West Indian Dominicans, Agostino Brunais, c. 1770, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Marguerite-Urbane Deurbroucq by Pierre-Bernard Morlot, 1753, Musée de l’Histoire de Nantes

Miss Breme Jones, 1785-87, John Rose, 2008.300.1, CWF
Thank you so much for listening and we'll see you next time!

Abby
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Thursday, October 18, 2018

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Spring2019 - A New Pattern for Simplicity - 1790s Gown and Open Robe!

Ann Frankland Lewis - 1794. LACMA
I'm excited to officially announce that we've developed another new historical dress pattern for Simplicity!

Since first partnering with Simplicity several years ago I've learned so much about developing patterns for the commercial world. It's *so* different than making patterns for one's self or a niche group and trying to do historical dress patterns for mass printing has been a particularly big challenge.

We've had our ups and downs, certainly - all part of the learning experience. I'm pleased that, with this knowledge and experience, I can now work out the kinks more effectively and produce better patterns.

Emily Seriziat, 1795, Jacques Louis David.
This time around, with the growing interest in the 1790s, and the ongoing love affair with Jane Austen and the turn of the 19th century, I'm working on a late '90s round gown + open robe.

This pattern will be very easy for beginners and offer easy adjustments in its design. There is no tricky stayed-waist fitment, no confusing-and-required period construction, and the results should be flattering and elegant to everyone. As always, there will be machine-sewing instructions in the pattern envelope, but you can easily and quickly put together the garments using the hand-sewing techniques in "The American Duchess Guide."

Gown, French. 1795-1800. via
The pattern will be out in the Spring 2019 Simplicity pattern book, which gives plenty of time to make the gown and/or robe for Summer Jane Austen and late 18th century events. <3

If you'd like to see all the patterns we've done with Simplicity, visit the "Books & Patterns" section on our website.
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Friday, October 12, 2018

Episode 22: Part 2 with Jenny Tiramani from the School of Historical Dress


Hi Again!

Abby here, fulfilling my promise from last week that we were going to release the second part of our conversation with the incredible Jenny Tiramani.

This week's episode is just a continuation of what we were discussing last week, and some great details about future books from the School of Historical Dress (omg sooo excited!), and just other lovely goodness.

So sit back, relax, and have a listen!

Oh! And for the love of everything good and educated --- buy Patterns of Fashion 5 now! Only a few more weeks until we can get our hands on it -- hooray!

Until next time (hopefully next week, cause woo boy, do I have a lot of podcasts to publish!)

Abby


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Monday, October 8, 2018

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The "En Fourreau" Myth

NOPE
In our modern world there is much of the past that has been obscured. Looking through the lens of time, especially when you have to peer through the film of the Victorian era, the ways of the past get hazy, sometimes completely lost. We lose knowledge and understanding of ways of life, of work, of dress, of speech. This is why we can never truly be 100% historically accurate.

We tend to apply our own knowledge and understanding to things in the past. We call these "reenactorisms." Reenactorisms start nobody's-quite-sure-where-or-when and persist doggedly, sometimes for generations.

One such reenactorism is the ubiquitous term "en fourreau." It's used to describe a pleated back English gown or night gown wherein the back pleats are cut in one with the skirt. The term "fourreau" is an 18th century French term relating to dress, but doesn't appear to relate to the back pleats of a gown.


The New Pocket Dictionary, 1784 [1]
The Complete Vocabulary in English and French, and in French and English..." 1785.
In its simplest translation, fourreau is a frock. (It also relates to an envelope, sheath, as a scabbard, but also of a, um, horsey bits). The fourreau describes children's dress, but in the 1780s is seen in description of women's fashionable dress as well.

Children's dress described in Cabinet des Modes, February 1786. The description, the plate, and my translation. Cabinet de Modes is available on Gallica (click through for link)

"The little girl seen from the front is dressed in a taffeta frock trimmed with gauze and a gauze apron."Gallerie des Modes et Costumes Francais, 1780. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 44.1482 mfa.org [2]
The fashion plates depicting adults use the word "fourreau" (or "foureau") in many different ways. Here are the plates:

From Cabinet de Modes, December 1785, with my translation. I have purposefully not translated "fourreau" here because it can mean several things - is this a frock? a sheath? a kerchief? I leave it to you to make your own determination. Gallica.fr

..." a simple Foureau d'Agnes, Amadis sleeves"
Gallerie des Modes et Costumes Francais, 1784. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 44.1567

"A Foureau gown with a single tail (train), the sleeves rolled up."
We may be tempted to believe it means the bodice and skirt are cut in one but the mid-1780s is way past the fashionable period for pleated back gowns. Cassidy of A Most Beguiling Accomplishment interprets/translates this to be that the back is pleated.   Gallerie des Modes et Costumes Francais, 1784. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 44.1584

"Fourreau gown, the sleeves rolled up, the edges of the dress turned in front with braids and buttons..."
Gallerie des Modes et Costumes Francais, 1784. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 44.1580

"...wearing a gauze fourreau with a striped belt..."
Gallerie des Modes et Costumes Francais, 1785. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 44.1624

"...she is dressed in a caraco and taffeta fourreau..."
Gallerie des Modes et Costumes Francais, 1786. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 44.1643

"A Levite gown with a foureau bodice/waistcoat..."
Gallerie des Modes et Costumes Francais, 1779. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 44.1417

Additionally, The Lady's Magazine of 1789 notes -


It's such a shame we can't see what Lady's Magazine was really describing!

*Cassidy Percoco has also translated and listed more fashion plates from various sources mentioning "fourreau" and its derivatives on her blog A Most Beguiling Accomplishment. You'll see there are even more descriptions and plates that confuse the meaning of "fourreau," for instance, a child's gown described as a fourreau but with no back fastening and a supporting description that it fastened in front (1780); also a Levantine gown (1779) described as having a pleated back, but with no image of the back to illustrate how.

Just to confuse you, the pink gown is described as a fourreau. Gallerie des Modes, 1780. (not the description written on this plate, but the description in text describing this plate - you can find this on Cassidy's blog (at link).
As you can see just through observation, none of these garments gives us a conclusive definition of what a [un] Fourreau gown or en fourreau part of a costume is. As with so many 18th century things, especially in the 1780s, it's all over the place.

 I have yet to find a definitive primary source identifying "fourreau" or "en fourreau." as a pleated-back English gown or Night gown (but if you have, please let me know in the comments!). There are secondary sources aplenty, though. Janet Arnold labels a gown from The Gallery of English Costume as both a polonaise and "cut en fourreau," but does not list references.[3] Costume Close-up tags the 1770-85 gown with the term, "This style is called en fourreau, or the English back," with no citation. Grandaddy C. Willett Cunnington repeatedly describes and assigns the label to illustrations in Handbook of English Costume in the Eighteenth Century, but not a single primary quotation in his book actually uses the term to clearly describe the back pleats of an English gown. It remains a mystery where Cunnington got this definition.[4] Norah Waugh indexes "fourreau" as a tie-back gown in the late 16th century and later in the late 19th century. Waugh does not assign the term to any of the 18th century pleated-back gowns in The Cut of Women's Clothes.[5]


Interestingly, Cunnington consistently uses the term "corsage en fourreau" to describe the back pleats. This term appears in the Gallerie des Modes fashion plate depicting the Levite gown (above). Norah Waugh and Abby Cox both cite primary evidence defining "corsage" as a soft, un-boned bodice, commonly worn beneath fly-front gowns like the Polonaise, Levite, and Turque. A corsage en fourreau is more likely to be a back-closing, close-fitting bodice based on the child's garment and worn by fashionable ladies in the third quarter of the 18th century.

As for the rest, it's quite inconclusive. It's one of those wibbly-wobbly-18th-century-timey-wimey-fashion things.

So, my friends, how do you think this misuse of the term arose? Have you seen any primary evidence linking pleated back English gowns with this French word? Can we stop calling them en fourreau gowns now?

----------------------------

[1] There are many dictionaries with the same or similar definitions - "Royal Dictionary Abridged" 1715, "Royal English Dictionary" 1729, and "The Royal Dictionary" 1771. (Google Books)
[2] Another Gallerie de Modes et Costumes Francais plate, also 1780, describes "This little girl is dress in a frock [un Foureau] of painted toile trimmed in bands and the pulled up a la Polonaise" Museum of Fine Arts, Boston44.1483
[3] Patterns of Fashion 1: Englishwomen's Dresses and Their Construction c. 1660-1860. It is well-known now that the Polonaise is its own specific garment - in fact, Norah Waugh in Cut of Women's Clothes, 1968, states this clearly, contradicting her contemporary Janet Arnold. Without citations in Arnold it's very difficult to substantiate her label of "en fourreau" as well.
[4] Cunnington, C. Willett & Phillis Cunnington, Handbook of English Costume in the Eighteenth Century. 1964. Great Britain. pgs 114, 121, 125, 274, 276.
[5] Waugh, Norah. The Cut of Women's Clothes: 1600 - 1930. 1968. New York.






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